WHILE LISTENING TO LEE

The seas have been the mainstay of great civilizations and the origin of all life forms. Many see the ocean a source of relaxation for the senses, while others find their overflowing life and biodiversity. In the seas also manifested the greatest forces of nature. Now in the twenty-turn to them for their boundless energy from gas pockets and fossil fuels to cleaner and renewable energy like wind, waves, tides, thermal energy or as entirely new forms those derived from algae capable of generating biofuels. The man returns to mother's life hatched we proceed. He returned to the oceans Sea. A finite resource? The volume of water seems immeasurable and therefore unlimited resources. It is truly brutal although admittedly limited. Let's become an idea ... If we had a giant cube-shaped tank occupying the entire Iberian Peninsula, on the order of 1,110 miles in length, and with an identical height of 1.110 km, there would fit all the seas of the earth! This gives us an idea of the savage amount of water of the oceans. A cubic kilometer of water is water that would fit into a cube one kilometer side: A lot of water of course! The 1110 number cubed gives cubic kilometers of water with the sea. Multiply three times 1110 and get the nearly 1,400 million cubic kilometers of water stored seas. And this enormity of water occur most incredible events of life and physics. The sun, our star thermonuclear hot water producing this immensity of all forms of energy derivatives. Non-renewable energy
Everyone knows that the largest reserves of oil and gas are underwater. And then to extract human ingenuity has invented impressive structures known as oil rigs. The earliest date from 1897 and launched in California. They could not operate in waters deeper than 100 meters deep, but we managed to extract oil now hidden more than 3 kilometers deep! The oil and gas also grows naturally from the seabed some faults. For example in Santa Barbara, California, emerged about 150 million barrels and cubic meters of gas escaping into the atmosphere. In 1982, he set up two large "pyramids" of steel to capture and channel it into the distribution and consumption. There are recent studies that underscore the interest of large deposits of methane hydrates as frozen in the seabed. The hard part is to merge them for removal to what is researched by pumping warm water from the surface to extract the methane in its gaseous state.Were no immediate ecological impact of these extraction systems but if it is clear that methane contributes negatively to the greenhouse effect, so it will be necessary to investigate other alternative energy sources. Even with all the reserves of methane are brutal and the order of 30 times, all the existing natural gas! Renewable energy in the sea For renewable must understand those that do not require millions of years to regenerate again as with oil. The more it costs to extract oil reserves in the world, receiving more attention from alternative energy sources. But for now the price of renewable energy is more expensive, and this is the only reason for their low exploitation. There are methods to extract energy from the movement of waves, tides, heat from the sea, or even biofuel. Mechanical energy from the sea The oceans provide enormous amounts of mechanical energy.Can you imagine the amount of electric motors needed to simulate the waves of the seas of the world? Well that's the energy we have at our disposal if we learn to extract it from the waves. Already in medieval mill blades are used in some rivers that drew energy from their waters. Tidal power plants are now used to trap the water on the high seas to pass up later during low tide through the turbines. The problem is the low pressure reservoir water with a drop of how much a dozen meters. The important thing is impound large volumes of water and is therefore looking for estuaries with narrow openings where gates manufacture. But they are very expensive because they must endure storms and inclement sea making expensive exploration projects. The energy of ocean currents Strong ocean currents shifted a brutal body of water along many continental coastlines at speeds up to 1 or 2 meters per second.It is possible to extract enormous amounts of energy from this movement underwater turbines which rotate due to the strength of these currents. The latest engineering developments can extract this energy if the flow moves over 1 meters per second. For every square meter of section is possible to extract the order of 1 kW. The strongest currents like the Gulf or the Kuroshio shifted the order of 80 million cubic meters per second at an average speed of about 2 meters per second. It's brutal the amount of energy they carry. The Strait of Gibraltar, the Channel or the Kuril Islands are points that could provide for the installation of power plants by ocean currents.

There are many other projects that seek to extract energy from ocean currents, whether or not due to tides, using underwater devices directly, by way of working windmills under water, stealing energy flows. The empresaEnergetech has developed several projects of its kind in Australia and the United States. Also been carried out facilities that extract the kinetic energy of the waves through chambers in which the wave enters and so compress the air inside their place in the rotation movement of wind turbines which in turn produce electricity.

The tidal energy The beauty of the tidal energy is completely predictable is that unlike other physical phenomena manifested in the seas. The tides are due to the attraction of the moon and the sun on the water body during the rotation of our planet. The difference in tide level between the lowest point and highest occurs twice a day and in some cases may reach 15 meters high!Unfortunately for renewables, these strong tides can only be successfully exploited in about 20 places on our planet. For tidal power to be profitable you need a dam to allow water terrain in some narrow area that the level difference is at least 3 meters.

For their operation, building a dam with a narrow pass in which is mounted a turbine connected mechanically to an electric generator. When the tide is at its peak, it opens the gate for water to rush into moving the blades of the turbine. Once full, close and waiting for low tide, at which time you reopen the gate to let out the water reservoir that will move the turbine in the opposite direction this time. The tidal power of "Rance" in France produces the electrical power required to feed a population of 240,000 dwellings, representing a fifth of the power generated by a nuclear plant. In total 2TWh generate about a year or 2 trillion watts!Such is the power that can be extracted from the sea to the Taiwan government is considering the installation of generators that take advantage of strong submarine Kuroshio to generate up to 1.6 TWh per year. Wind energy and solar energy

Are well known in our country and there is nothing but shop around to find a powerful Zaragoza wind farm. Another walk on the N-VI from Madrid to La Coruna we discover endless facilities plagued by photovoltaic panels for direct use of solar energy into electric power production. In the sea, unlike the earth, it is necessary to find a suitable site for installation of these devices and need not expropriate any owners. In the North Sea and there are extensive facilities for the exploitation of wind energy. Denmark has also installed a massive 200 MW wind farm at sea, of 2,500 wind turbines, delivering up to 8% of all electricity consumed in Denmark in 2008.The sea surface reflects the year in each square mile all the energy of 7,000 barrels of oil.

In Denmark, 8% of the energy consumed comes from a huge electrical production facility that uses hundreds of windmills. To properly extract energy from the wind that blows needed at a speed of at least 3 to 4 meters per second. The energy that we extract brutally grows with wind speed because the energy carried by the wind power increases with the cube of the velocity of the air mass. In some places in California where the average wind speed reaches about 13 meters per second for at least 5,000 hours per year, and there are some powerful wind power plants. In the future we could install generators at sea plants capable of producing hydrogen would be transported to land for fuel. The mechanical energy of waves These ingenious devices available to convert the mechanical energy of waves into electricity.The waves move vast amounts of kinetic energy through the seas, and to remove devices are used based on the movement of buoys or flexible bladders which when compressed by the impact of a pressure wave produced in an air bag capable of moving a wind turbine. There are many devices invented and that each time allowing more efficiently extract energy from wave motion. In Norway it a plant that produces 850 kW of motion of the waves. Here's how the project which has OceanLinx turbines with variable pitch blades to optimize energy production in the jet of compressed air. Each plant is capable of producing kilowatt for a town of up to 1,500 homes. There are other projects of great interest to extract energy from waves by buoys that rise and fall with the waves, trailing cables and devices capable of moving alternators and dynamos.

Passing the wave, the float tab joint swivels connecting all the floats, this movement pumps a fluid in a closed circuit which will move the turbine.The float returns to its original position due to its own weight. In 1978 he launched this device of 50 meters in length capable of producing 10 kW.

The system named "Mollusk" works with some similarity to the way they do the organs of a mussel. There are two cameras connected to one of which is rigid and the other consists of a flexible bladder. When the wave hits, the bladder and produces a compressed air pressure is transmitted to the rigid chamber. The air pressure is what drives a turbine. Thermal energy We are not talking about solar, but energy as heat stored in the own temperature of the enormous body of water of the seas. Water temperature can be exploited if we have another body of water at different temperatures, as always happens in the deeper water layers than a mile from the surface. This difference exists because the sun always hot water only the surface layer.The difference is maximum in the tropics where the sun warms the force while still very cold deep layers. For the energy generation process need pay a difference of about 25 degrees. As in the tropical seas can be found at 30 degrees, we pump cold water to the bottom surface to 5 degrees Celsius. The important thing is to minimize this distance to reduce losses and achieve a good efficiency. The French engineer Jacques D'Arsonval in 1881 and predicted the possibility of extracting energy from the sea by this system, a pupil Georges Claude in Cuba in 1930 mounted the first power plant that extracted by this system and can produce 22 kilowatts. Systems OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) may operate according to several principles involving a gas that evaporates at about 30 degrees and melts at 5 degrees, which circulates in a closed circuit so much as does a refrigerator. The operating principle is really the inverse of the refrigerators in our homes.Hot water from the sea surface evaporates the gas (ammonia) closed circuit volume increases with increasing pressure and mechanically drives a turbine connected to an electric generator. The gas and without pressure and therefore no energy is conducted through tubes into the depths to cool and condense back into liquid to climb back to the surface and repeat the process of extracting electricity. There are other curious open-loop systems where the seawater itself starts to boil at 35 degrees. It is sufficient to reduce the system pressure to a fraction of atmospheric pressure. In Hawaii was mounted in 1974 the power plant according to a scheme OTEC. The typical operating principle of OTEC power plant is based on condensation and evaporation of a refrigerant gas as do the heat pumps air conditioners. The thermal energy of water can also be exploited in the Arctic areas of Russia.In 1982 Arch was put into a new system with Freon gas circulating in a "ring" that harnesses the heat of the gas cycle with an ingenious system of electric ionization.

Biodiesel It is about getting low viscosity oils derived from algae and can be burned in combustion engines. Currently obtained from other crops such as palm or maize, which causes serious environmental problems. So is investigated with great intensity to achieve compound extract used as biofuel from various types of seaweed. The potential of sea algae producing biofuel generation is huge and once achieved the technology to produce biodiesel effectively, is more than likely to end once and for all with the energy dependence on oil.

Marine biomass contains a huge amount of energy. To produce biodiesel, are fermented in anaerobic environments carbohydrates of algae to produce alcohols and gases such as methane.One of the most promising algae Chlorella is grown in large containers afloat. These deposits are made of polyethylene trays act as sun-heated rapid growth for these algae which then ferment to produce the biofuel. The ecological impact Any system has an impact on both ecology and ecological impacts should be analyzed. For example if we close a bay with a dam to produce a tidal power, we're destroying the wildlife that inhabits the place. The generators can alter the underwater marine life and should be considered the danger of the blades turn underwater. Saw mills produce noise and vibration in the environment. Parallel to the difficulty of optimizing power production, is the problem of energy distribution obtained. It is the same transfer electrical power a plant on land that at a function in a marine environment.The closer the power station at its core the better consumer energy use, as during transport lost an important part of this energy. It is not always possible to consume near the production site, especially if the plant is at sea.


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